Mastering Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO and Exposure

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But if we choose a low shutter speed, his movement will look blurred in the final photo. Sports photographers do need to freeze the action we want to see which football player kicked the ball, right?

Exposure Triangle: Making Sense of Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO

A very good example, traditionally exploited by landscape photographers, is blurring water. Water shot at low shutter speeds acquires a very soft, milky look that is especially eye-pleasing.


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At such low speeds, any movement of the camera will blur the object in focus so the use of a tripod is obligatory. Realated : Best Canon Camera for Astrophotography. If you are interested in exploring the effects of different shutter speeds, choose Shutter Priority or Manual mode. Manual mode makes you a bit slower but gives you ultimate control over the final look of your photo.

Mastering Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO and Exposure: How They Interact and Affect Each Other

For example, you might want to deliberately over- or underexpose your photo. ISO is a photographic concept that originated in film photography but was later translated to digital cameras too. However, ISO works in different ways in both types of photography. In film photography, ISO is a number that defines how sensitive to light a particular roll of film is.

Lower ISO numbers like 50 or mean the film is not very sensitive to light. These types of film are perfect for shooting on a bright and sunny day outside. Analogically, higher ISO numbers mean films that are more sensitive to light. They are suitable for shooting indoors or in low-light conditions outside.

This is due to their emulsion. As you know, the emulsion of a film consists of light-sensitive layers of silver halide crystals that capture light. The higher the ISO, the larger and coarser these crystals are. They need to be such in order to record light more quickly and allow for using faster shutter speeds.

However, they also create more grain. Lower ISO films, on the other hand, have emulsion with a finer crystal structure so they produce smoother photographs. In digital photography, the ISO value can be changed very easily from the menu you do not need to change films which is what film photographers do to increase or decrease light sensitivity.

Depending on the model of your digital camera, you may have a choice of ISO ranging from 50 up to , On a bright day outside ISO is usually a great choice. If you shoot indoors, you will usually have to choose an ISO up from Your camera always captures light at ISO Just like in films, lower ISO settings produce images of better quality. Colors also suffer at high ISO settings. This is strictly camera-specific, so some cameras can produce more noise at ISO than others.

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Exposure Triangle: Making Sense of Aperture, Shutter Speed & ISO

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  6. Start on. The wider the aperture, the shallower the depth of field, and the more light that comes in. Shutter speed is how long your shutter remains open. A fast shutter speed lets in less light and gives the effect of freezing an object in motion. Slower shutter speeds are good in low light when you need to let more light in or any time you want the effect of blur and movement. ISO, shutter speed, and aperture work together to determine exposure.

    When you make an adjustment to one, you need to make the opposite adjustment to one of the others if you want to maintain consistent exposure. Say, for example, you have your exposure dialed in but you decide you want a faster shutter speed to freeze the frame even more. Increasing the shutter speed will mean that less light will be hitting your sensor. To compensate for this, you will need to use a wider aperture or higher ISO to keep a correct exposure.

    Each has its own advantages and which one you choose to use is largely a matter of preference. Selecting the right shutter speed largely comes down to knowing what your subject is and what your goal is in taking the photo. This chart gives you an idea of what various shutter speeds can be used for. Keep in mind, however, that this is only a starting point and that these values still need to be balanced against aperture and ISO to make sure that enough light is hitting the sensor.

    This chart is just a starting point.


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    Deciding which shutter speed to use will be a matter of trial and error depending on how fast your subject is moving and what the available light is. Using shutter speed to your advantage will depend on having an understanding of what you are going for. Do you want to freeze the action of that athlete or do you want to give your image a sense of motion?

    Photography Hack: The Secrets to, Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO & How to Get The Perfect Exposure

    Decide what you want, consult the chart, and then start tweaking. If you find that the image is blurrier than you would like, use a faster shutter. Something to keep in mind when choosing your shutter speed is that the longer your shutter is open, the better the chances of camera shake blurring your photos. This is especially true when shooting with a longer lens.

    If your shutter speed will be slower than the length of your lens, it may be time to break out the tripod.

    Mastering Aperture, Shutter Speed, ISO and Exposure: How They Interact and Affect Each Other

    Image stabilization in your camera or lens may also help negate some of this shake. Shutter priority mode allows you to select the shutter speed you want while the camera figures out the ISO and aperture for a proper exposure. Spend some time playing with the shutter priority mode to see what happens to your images when you speed up or slow down the shutter speed. Want to use a long exposure but your image is too bright?