Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act of 2011
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GFDRR has supported activities in Guatemala at the regional, national, and local levels since to incorporate risk information in development planning processes, enhance financial disaster preparedness, and contribute to preventative planning in cities exposed to annual floods and landslides.
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- Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.
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In the following years, to provide a general overview of the state of DRM program in selected countries and guide the engagement of GFDRR resources to support and complement these programs, GFDRR continued its regional support by developing the country notes for Guatemala and other Latin American countries. In , GFDRR supported similar efforts and provided technical assistance to the government in the damage and loss assessment and recovery planning after the November 7, earthquake.
This work helped pave the way for GFDRR to support the Ministry of Agriculture to develop an agriculture insurance market in the country. Since , GFDRR has provided technical assistance in the country to develop and propose an affordable and scalable model to retrofit existing houses and to align housing policies, private household investments, and access to microfinance products to improve living conditions.
Activities include conducting vulnerability assessments and reviewing the performance of different types of housing units in past earthquakes; developing retrofitting solutions to mitigate earthquake and other hazard risks; and enhancing the impact of slum upgrading interventions with housing incentives by the government. The Project's Development Objective is to increase access to basic urban infrastructure and services and mitigate key risk factors of crime and violence in selected communities.
Toggle navigation. However, the institutional framework is not as transparent as it needs to be.
The policy focus on EWS is as yet flexible in implementation. The Government of Nepal is very cooperative with international agencies during disasters. It is always better to identify the potential humanitarian agencies with their respective working areas prior to a disaster. The Government of Nepal has been receiving assistance in cash or in kind when disaster happens in the country.
There should be one funnel method of monitoring incoming agencies. We also recommend having particular provisions for those who are interested in assisting. The NSDRM focuses on capacity building of local actors related to disaster, which is missing in disaster act The law also needs to establish concrete plans to mobilize local NGOs and community based organizations during disasters. It has been more than a decade of not having local leaders to look after community-level activities, including disaster planning. This is one of the weaknesses of the country for not being able to empower local communities through stable local leaders.
At the district level, 21 districts still need health contingency planning exercises, and 54 others are waiting for training. This act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management, coordination, and collaboration, along with responsibilities for implementation by the selected authorities.
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This could have saved a few lives if it was approved on time. With a long-term vision toward managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the NRRC, which can help Nepal gain disaster-resilient communities through its programs. All in all, the findings of this report may be very useful in reducing the loss of lives and socioeconomic structures due to water-induced disasters in various vulnerable areas of Nepal. It may also be useful in prioritizing the districts that are prone to floods and landslides for interventions and adoption of a new multifunctional law in the country.
Recommendations that can help Nepal to prevent loss of lives, infrastructure, and economy due to water-induced disasters are as follows. A campaign to strengthen community empowerment and awareness related to floods and landslides, particularly in high-risk zones, needs to be established. Forming community-based rescue teams and providing them appropriate training can save more lives by quick action during the response phase of a disaster. Disasters can be mainstreamed with development works to avoid future destruction caused by poor construction of infrastructure.
Such construction should be properly planned and evaluated to avoid possible effects and consequences from floods and landslides. Integration of disaster preparedness in the school curriculum and regular broadcasts from media can be effective in the long run.
Overall, there has been some progress made in flood and landslide preparedness, but there still remain lots of things to be done. For appropriate hazard-vulnerability analysis and establishment of EWSs, there is an urgent need for a standard, uniform source of information.
Research in disaster areas must be promoted to analyze the severity of floods and intervene accordingly. EWSs can be implemented in collaboration with community-based organizations that can build a certain level of communication sharing in disaster-prone areas of the country.
Responsible authorities and channels of communication for EWSs can be identified in local, national, and international communities. Continuous rainfall monitoring should be done through modern monitoring gauges that can help to detect and assess the vulnerability of land to landslides. Similarly, local-level flood hazard mapping done with the frequently flooding river basins can save lives and properties. The country is in dire need of a clear legal framework and act for natural disaster management. Almost all the time, post-disaster rescue operations are given priority, and the national law also focuses mainly on the aftermath of a disaster.
The management of disasters should be carried out routinely and must be revised in the national law to make it more effective. Comparison of international data and national data records regarding the number of deaths. Notes: A comparison of death records due to floods and landslides between international databases and national databases is shown in the figure. The record regarding the number of deaths for the same event fluctuated in different data sources. Similarly, a higher record is seen in DesInventar than in other sources Surya Gaire would like to express immense gratitude to his helpful friends for their contribution to the disaster risk profile work.
Finally, yet importantly, Surya Gaire would like to express his heartfelt thanks to the entire management committee of the University of Oviedo and all the lecturers who have played a vital role in completion of this work. Author Contributions. All authors contributed toward data analysis, drafting and critically revising the paper and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy. Published online Sep 3. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Abstract Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters.
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Keywords: risk, vulnerability, risk factors, natural hazards, natural disasters, monsoon rainfall. Methodology The disaster risk profile of Nepal was developed by reviewing secondary data resources focusing mainly on floods and landslides. Sunkoshi landslide, Jure village of Sindhupalchok District, Jure village of Sindhupalchok District, situated 70 km away from the capital city, was hit by a massive landslide in August , causing the loss of more than lives, loss of more than households, and displaced people.
The existing legal framework for disaster risk management Legal documents the Natural Calamity Relief Act of 16 and the National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management NSDRM 17 of Nepal illustrate a disaster management strategy through various institutional frameworks from central level to local level. Discussion Disasters such as floods and landslides occur every year in Nepal, seriously affecting the everyday lives of people and causing enormous damage to physical properties.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Impact of floods — Table 1 Losses n from water-induced disasters — Figure 2. Number of houses damaged and destroyed by landslides — Figure 3. Number of deaths caused due to landslides — Figure 4.
Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides
Association between number of deaths and increasing year. Figure 5. Table 4 Milestones in disaster risk management in Nepal 2 , 4. Recommendations and conclusion All in all, the findings of this report may be very useful in reducing the loss of lives and socioeconomic structures due to water-induced disasters in various vulnerable areas of Nepal. Figure 6. Acknowledgments Surya Gaire would like to express immense gratitude to his helpful friends for their contribution to the disaster risk profile work.
Footnotes Author Contributions All authors contributed toward data analysis, drafting and critically revising the paper and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1.
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Kathmandu: Kathmandu: United Nations Development Programme; Country Profile, hazard profile, disaster profile [webpage on the Inter-net] Government of Nepal; Dahal RK. Rainfall-induced landslides in Nepal. International Journal of Erosion Control Engineering. WHO Nepal; Mahakali flood sweeps entire settlement in Darchula; One killed, district headquarters at risk; 23 workers rescued in Kanchanpur [webpage on the Internet] Image Channel; Information Bulletin. Nepal and India: Landslides and Floods. DPNet Nepal; Landslip dams sunkoshi river [webpage on the Internet] eKantipur; Nepal Law Commission; National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management, Government of Nepal, Ministry of Home Affairs; United Nations.
World Conf Disaster Reduct; Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. Impact Factor: 2. Society Links. This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus. Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features. Read more. Key topics:- multifaceted disaster and cascading disasters the development of disaster risk reduction strategies and techniques discussion and development of effective warning and educational systems for risk management at all levels disasters associated with climate change vulnerability analysis and vulnerability trends emerging risks resilience against disasters The journal particularly encourages papers that approach risk from a multi-disciplinary perspective.
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